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An academic painter who had achieved great success in the Paris Salon with mythological, historical, and religious subjects, Bouguereau later turned to genre scenes such as this image of a young woman caring for her younger brother.
Moreover, scholars have linked Gilbert Stuart portrayed George Washington several times in this stately, full-length portrait format known as the Grand Manner, initially reserved for royalty.
In this case, he used European models for the setting and figure, and then adapted the iconography for an American subject. Standing in the classical pose of an orator with arm extended , Washington appears in formal civilian clothing, but holds a sword that recalls his military achievements and suggests the might of his presidency Although Eakins's initial motives came from a desire to restore Rush's name to the history of American art, his primary focus on the back of a strongly highlighted nude model also calls into play issues about traditional methods of art instruction.
Rush was a founder of During and even immediately after the Civil War, very few American artists undertook direct representations of the catastrophic conflict or of the experience of the enslaved African Americans whose plight it decided.
One of the most remarkable exceptions is this painting by the leading mid-century figure painter Eastman Johnson, who claimed to have based the subject on an actual event he had witnessed near the Manassas, Virginia, battlefield on March 2, , just days before the Confederate In Max Weber wrote of his creative process: Memories are visible things.
Two years later he painted this oil, which shows the crystallization of this memory in even greater abstraction. Throughout the embattled environment of the colonial Americas—above and below the equator—portraits served as potent symbols of political and social power.
The Brooklyn Museum's strong holdings of Spanish colonial art afford an unusual opportunity to study American colonial portraiture on the broadest possible level.
Portraits of the historical kings of the Inca dynasty of Peru—including this eighteenth-century example—were a type that originated in the context of the vying powers of The Hamzanama recounts the picturesque exploits of Hamza, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad.
The Mughal emperor Akbar ruled — ordered his artists to prepare an illustrated copy of the Hamzanama on a scale never seen before: Literary sources record that though more than fifty painters busied themselves with the colossal undertaking, it took fifteen years to complete.
Four of the folios are held by the Brooklyn Museum. On special assignment for a German newspaper, Rudolph Cronau came to America to document its cities, frontier lands, and Native American populations for curious European audiences.
Conceived in tones of black and white for reproduction, this watercolor features the Gothic-style entrance arch at center, the One of the dynamic, young group of American Realists known as the Ashcan School, George Luks was a tough character who in art and life embraced the gritty side of turn-of-the-century New York.
In this important early work, Luks pictured the street life of one of the Lower East Side's teeming immigrant neighborhoods. By , Hester Street had become home to a recently arrived population of Eastern European Jews and the site of a daily open-air market where thousands shopped for their This quiet, enclosed landscape subject, very likely set in the Catskills or Adirondacks, represents the direction in which Asher B.
Durand had moved American landscape art. After devoting his attention to expansive views that often included historical or moralizing narratives, by the s he began to record in fine detail more intimate settings in which there was no palpable human presence.
This very contained composition, although completed in the studio, is close in spirit to the highly During the Napoleonic era — , war became an ever-present spectacle in Europe.
At the pool known as the Piscina Probatica, the infirm gather around the edge of the water in the hope of being healed. According to John, an angel stirs the pool, activating its curative powers; the next person to step into the water would be delivered from affliction.
George Brainerd, a lifelong Brooklynite, produced a total of 2, photographs before his early death at age 42 in The majority of these were images of Brooklyn, a vast documentation of the urban landscape—dams and mills, bridges and train depots, engine houses and pumping stations—but also, especially after , images of city dwellers and street scenes.
The town of Pomata, situated above Lake Titicaca in the highlands of Peru, was once a popular Christian pilgrimage shrine. In this painting, Our Lady of Pomata is depicted as a statue--a carved figure crowned and dressed in lavish garments and adorned with precious materials--that stood on the side altar of the parish church.
This type of iconic image, found throughout Latin America, is known as a statue painting. A rosary encircles the hands of the Virgin, who holds a tiny doll-like Child A young woman sounds the call for the noonday meal for the men laboring in the distant field.
The wind pulls her skirts outward behind her, investing her form with an almost heroic, monumental quality. The Haft Paykar , or Seven Portraits, is the fourth of the five narrative poems of the Khamsa of Nizami, and tells the story of the legendary fifth-century Sasanian king Bahram Gur.
Raised at the court of an Arab king, Bahram Gur one day found his way into a locked palace room, where he encountered seven portraits of seven princesses representing the seven climes of antiquity.
Mary Cassatt, who settled in Paris in , was the only American to be invited to exhibit with the French Impressionists.
She met Edgar Degas in , and although she was not officially his student, his art had a lasting effect on the development of her own.
His influence may be felt in the radical angles and eccentric composition of Mother and Child , a painting that also employs the mirror motif often found in the art of Edouard Manet, whose work Cassatt also admired.
The dancelike positions of the three nude women in this fanciful landscape recall the choreography of the famed Isadora Duncan, who had just returned to the United States in to promote her innovative dance movements, based on a free-form style that she attributed to the ancient Greeks.
The painting most likely grew out of Davies' familiarity with Duncan's theory that the essence of dance technique rested in natural breathing paralleling the rhythms of the ocean tides--hence the painting's The broken brushwork and blond tonalities that describe this idyllic sunlit scene are reminders of Ernest Lawson's early training with two American Impressionists, John H.
The theme of boys swimming was popular during the decades surrounding the turn of the century Object metadata can change over time, please check the Brooklyn Museum object record for the latest information.
Tissot notes that the Gentiles, sometimes in the employ of Jews, tended swine in these lands, despite Jewish tradition, The Philadelphia Realist painter Thomas Eakins executed exhibition watercolors during a brief period of his career.
In this bird-hunting scene set in the marshes of southern New Jersey, he used dry, tightly controlled brushstrokes to model his central figure and more fluid washes for the landscape.
While the subject matter and academic approach including extensive preparatory studies parallel his work in oil, the artist preferred watercolor for this sun-drenched picture because it allowed him This illustration was accompanied by a comment on the vicissitudes of bathing costumes: Can it be that this dripping, bedraggled, forlorn object who comes slowly from the water is the nymph-like creature who excited such admiration a few minutes ago?
Object metadata can change over In all likelihood, the scimitar examined by the powerful black man shown here belonged to the artist.
Indeed, what we see is a model posing among William Merritt Chase's carefully arranged studio props. This is probably the painting that Chase was completing in Venice for a German client immediately before he returned to the United States.
One of the most ambitious undertakings of his early career, The Moorish Warrior demonstrates Chase's desire to participate in the international trend for The Shahnama Book of Kings is the Iranian national epic, stemming from oral tradition and put to verse circa by the poet Abu'l Qasim Firdawsi of Tus.
During the 19th dynasty in particular, the vignettes tended to be lavish, sometimes at the expense of the surrounding text. In the Third Intermediate Period , the Book of the Dead started to appear in hieratic script, as well as in the traditional hieroglyphics.
The hieratic scrolls were a cheaper version, lacking illustration apart from a single vignette at the beginning, and were produced on smaller papyri.
At the same time, many burials used additional funerary texts, for instance the Amduat. During the 25th and 26th dynasties , the Book of the Dead was updated, revised and standardised.
Spells were consistently ordered and numbered for the first time. This standardised version is known today as the 'Saite recension', after the Saite 26th dynasty.
In the Late period and Ptolemaic period , the Book of the Dead remained based on the Saite recension, though increasingly abbreviated towards the end of the Ptolemaic period.
The last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BCE, though some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times.
The Book of the Dead is made up of a number of individual texts and their accompanying illustrations.
Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean "mouth," "speech," "spell," "utterance," "incantation," or "a chapter of a book.
At present, some spells are known,  though no single manuscript contains them all. They served a range of purposes. Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles.
Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual. Such spells as 26—30, and sometimes spells 6 and , relate to the heart and were inscribed on scarabs.
The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.
The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation;  there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.
Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth , and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful.
Written words conveyed the full force of a spell. The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life.
A number of spells are for magical amulets , which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.
Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value. Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available.
For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure. The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife.
The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area. One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu , or modes of existence.
Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into sah , an idealised form with divine aspects;  the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.
The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense. In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied.
It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.
An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods. The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.
In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat.
There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.
There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.
While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required. For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti.
These statuettes were inscribed with a spell, also included in the Book of the Dead , requiring them to undertake any manual labour that might be the owner's duty in the afterlife.
The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.
Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.
If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.
There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins ,  reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".
Then the dead person's heart was weighed on a pair of scales, against the goddess Maat , who embodied truth and justice.
Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life.
Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".
This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content.
The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.
For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.
A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.
They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver,  perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.
In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.
Most owners were men, and generally the vignettes included the owner's wife as well. Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead , there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman.